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Handbuch: http://www.gentoo.org/doc/de/handbook/handbook-x86.xml




schauen, was passiert ....

emerge -p udev

dann, installieren:

emerge udev


rc-update -s
rc-update add hotplug boot
rc-update del hotplug default


emerge --pretend unmerge xxx

Warning: Portage überprüft nicht, ob ein Paket Voraussetzung für ein anderes installiertes Paket ist. Desweiteren warnt Portage Sie nicht, wenn das Paket zu system gehört, also überlebenswichtig für Ihr System sein kann!


emerge search pdf
emerge --searchdesc pdf


etcat -d pkg

update der configurationsfiles -> kontrolle

emerge --help config | less

Config file management support (preliminary)

Portage has a special feature called "config file protection". The purpose of this feature is to prevent new package installs from clobbering existing configuration files. By default, config file protection is turned on for /etc and the KDE configuration dirs; more may be added in the future.

When Portage installs a file into a protected directory tree like /etc, any existing files will not be overwritten. If a file of the same name already exists, Portage will change the name of the to-be- installed file from 'foo' to '._cfg0000_foo'. If '._cfg0000_foo' already exists, this name becomes '._cfg0001_foo', etc. In this way, existing files are not overwritten, allowing the administrator to manually merge the new config files and avoid any unexpected changes.

In addition to protecting overwritten files, Portage will not delete any files from a protected directory when a package is unmerged. While this may be a little bit untidy, it does prevent potentially valuable config files from being deleted, which is of paramount importance.

Protected directories are set using the CONFIG_PROTECT variable, normally defined in /etc/make.globals. Directory exceptions to the CONFIG_PROTECTed directories can be specified using the CONFIG_PROTECT_MASK variable. To find files that need to be updated in /etc, type:

  1. find /etc -iname '._cfg????_*'

You can disable this feature by setting CONFIG_PROTECT="-*" in /etc/make.conf. Then, Portage will mercilessly auto-update your config files. Alternatively, you can leave Config File Protection on but tell Portage that it can overwrite files in certain specific /etc subdirectories. For example, if you wanted Portage to automatically update your rc scripts and your wget configuration, but didn't want any other changes made without your explicit approval, you'd add this to /etc/make.conf:

CONFIG_PROTECT_MASK="/etc/wget /etc/rc.d"

etc-update is also available to aid in the merging of these files. It provides a vimdiff interactive merging setup and can auto-merge trivial changes.

single user mode



an die zeile kernel des grub anhängen.

local rsync mirror



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